Tent: Fully Test-time Adaptation by Entropy Minimization


A model must adapt itself to generalize to new and different data during testing. This is the setting of fully test-time adaptation given only unlabeled test data and the model parameters. We propose test-time entropy minimization (tent): we optimize for model confidence as measured by the entropy of its predictions. During testing, we adapt the model features by estimating normalization statistics and optimizing channel-wise affine transformations. Tent improves robustness to corruptions for image classification on CIFAR/ImageNet and achieves state-of-the-art error on ImageNet-C for ResNet-50. Tent shows the feasibility of target-only domain adaptation for digit classification from SVHN to MNIST/MNIST-M/USPS and semantic segmentation from GTA to Cityscapes.

International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR), 2021